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The Two Great Leaders of Rome

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Augusts (Octavian)
Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. His real name was Octavian but he was given the name Augustus by the senate as an honour for his great achievements. He avenged the death of Caesar together with Mark Antony, before falling out with him. He defeated Mark Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. Because of this the senates created a new constitution for the empire were Augustus was at the head of the empire. He used his power wisely and to his advantage and built aqueducts, roads and buildings.
Augustus was in an uneasy alliance with Mark Antony and the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra they fought together for some years before they turned on each other, because of a political and romantic alliance with Queen Cleopatra. Augustus defeated both Cleopatra and Mark Antony in the naval war of Actium in 31 BC. This left all the power of Rome in his hands. The senates created a constitution and Augustus became the emperor of Rome.
Augustus also brought a time of peace called Pax Romana. In 27 BC Augustus took a special interest in cultural affairs. He started building temples and theatres, improving aqueducts and supporting poets and historians like Virgil and Ovid. The eighth month of the Gregorian calendar, August, bears his name.
Augustus, created a standing army for the first time, and took the task of a vigorous campaign to expand the Rome and to make Rome safe from the “barbarians” and to secure Augustan Peace. Tiberius and Drusus was his two step sons, they undertook the task. Between 16 BC and 6AD the army had advanced all the way to Elbe in Germany. Drusus died in the process and in 9AD the roman legions in Germany were annihilated and the abandonment of Germany east of Rhine.
Augustus was determined to be continued by someone of his own blood, but he had no sons, only a daughter, Julia, she was the child of his first wife. Both his nephew Marcellus and his beloved grandsons Gaius and pre-deceased him so he was forced to choose Tiberius for his heir.


Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was born (by Caesarean section according to an unlikely legend) of Aurelia and Gaius Julius Caesar, a praetor. His family had noble, patrician roots, although they were neither rich nor influential in this period. His aunt Julia was the wife of Gaius Marius, leader of the popular faction. . Pompey was allied with Caesar and Crassus and they fought in many military campaigns.

In 79BC he was a military legate and was awarded the civic crown for saving a civilian in battle. Caesar sailed to Greece for studies and on the way there he was captured by pirates that held him for ransom in that time he kept a friendly jokey relationship with the pirates and said that when he was free he would crucify them. When he did get free he did just that with the help of some other people but slit their throats first to lessen their suffering because they had been kind to him.
In 72BC he was elected senator note that he was senator with Crassus. In 65 BC he was elected pontifex maximus (chief priest) this was a major part of Roman culture and religion. In 59 BC he was elected counsel and left for Gaul and only returned in 9 years. During that time he had conquered most of what is now modern day Europe.
In 58BC Caesar attacked Helvetii and Germans and successfully beat them. One year later he crosses the Rhine River and attacks Britain. Three years later Crassus was killed which left the power in Caesar’s hands and Pompey was killed the year after. This only left Caesar in power by himself.
Two years later Caesar declared himself dictator for life but sadly one year after declaring himself as dictator for life he was murdered and stabbed by over 60 people.
Comparison

Both Augustus and Julius Caesar had similarities and differences. Some of the differences are that Augustus died of natural causes but, Julius Caesar did not, he was murdered because some senators didn’t like how he ruled the country. Julius Caesar was known for his powerful dictatorship and Augustus was known for bringing peace to Rome. Caesar’s power only came because he announced it but Augustus was Caesar’s adopted heir, so he had a good reason to become the next emperor.

Caesar and Augustus did not do everything alike however. For example, Caesar built the Forum Lulium, revised the calendar, enlarged the senate, and relieved all debt. Augustus however created a new form of government where there is only one lifelong ruler. Augustus created many buildings and promoted construction but also put statues of himself all around Rome. He formed a campaign that made the Roman Empire safe from so called “barbarians”. But nearing the end of his rule, he started acting more like a dictator, mostly because of his military disaster and because his grandsons and nephew died.

Caesar and Augustus were both great rulers of Rome. Enhancing Rome and making the land bigger, keeping enemies out and making Rome even more famous. These two leaders are some of Rome’s greatest and will not be forgotten any time soon.




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